How does "green lighting" influence and promote LED lighting industry?
"Green lighting" by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991 first proposed the "launch of green lighting project" concept, then immediately received the support of the United Nations and the attention of many countries, resulting in LED lighting competition kicked off.
Promoting green lighting goals and projects from the policy and technology aspects is the main means used by the state to promote the established goals.
In 2003, the British government encouraged people to use LED lighting through the "Energy White Paper", and local lighting enterprises also actively participated in the development and production of LED lighting products. From 2000 to 2006, Europe launched the "Green Lighting Plan" to eliminate high-energy products. The EU banned the use of high-wattage incandescent bulbs from September 2009, and banned them completely in 2012. As early as 1997, the United States achieved 7 billion kilowatt-hours of savings through the green lighting program, which was later incorporated into the Energy Star building efficiency program in 1998.
China is the world's largest developing country and the world's second largest producer and consumer of energy. With the continuous development of economy, the consumption of energy increases sharply. The rapid development of the power industry leads to the shortage of power supply, such as the recent blackout and power limit in local areas, as well as the power loss in the generation, abandonment and transmission of new energy with low efficiency, which will continue to exist in the future for a period of time. Therefore, to promote the technological development of the industrial chain and implement efficient lighting is one of the main ways to improve the shortage of power supply.
China's green lighting "85 start, 95 start". In 1996, "China green Lighting Project Implementation Plan" was issued, the main purpose of this plan is to save energy, healthy lighting. At that time, incandescent lamp and high-pressure sodium lamp still occupy the dominant position in the market. At that time, LED lighting was a new industry, in the early stage of industrial development. At that time, LED packaging technology was mainly controlled by enterprises in Taiwan. Later, LED was gradually accepted by the market due to its characteristics of environmental protection, energy saving, high color rendering and long life, attracting more and more businesses to join the industry.
LED was applied to the lighting industry in about 2006, mainly replacing incandescent lamp and high-pressure sodium lamp with LED bulb lamp and street lamp. However, it was the subsequent cost reduction that brought LED lighting into an upswing, mainly due to the upgrading of equipment manufacturing and the automation of LED packaging technology that improved product quality and stability. LED lamp beads from the earliest a few dollars a LED lamp beads down to a few corners or even a few minutes, and there are many manufacturers can take different manufacturing schemes according to different guests using fields, promote LED lighting penetration into the civil field, so far has achieved nearly 60%-70% replacement.
LED into the mature period, because of its low entry threshold, there are many LED lighting workshops. In terms of technology and manufacturing process, these small workshops pursue the same cost or even lower than that of large enterprises, so that the price does not represent the excellent quality, resulting in confusion in the LED lighting market. After that, China launched 3C certification standards and environmental protection policies for green lighting, standardizing the LED lighting industry and prompting enterprises to turn to the improvement of technology and equipment.
Two continents around the world lay the foundation for free trade and green lighting development
In the 1990s, a global and two-continent trade pattern was formed. First, the FREE trade agreement of North America's primary industry and tertiary industry led by the United States, followed by the formation of the European Union's economic and market integration, and finally, the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
After the formation of the three circles laid the foundation of the world free trade and regional monopoly pattern. The Kyoto Protocol signed in 1997 further promoted the development goals and tasks of green lighting, and encouraged the r&d and innovation of LED lighting technology.
In 2007, the SUBPRIME crisis in the United States and anti-dumping policies hit the lighting industry, which was just in the development period, resulting in a sharp decline in exports. However, Chinese lighting enterprises have introduced advanced equipment and researched and developed new technologies. During 2013-2016, the domestic replacement rate of LED chips has increased, and the cost performance of small and medium power products has been greatly improved, finally catching up with the second rising cycle of LED chips. Therefore, China is gradually realizing the localization of the whole industrial chain from OEM.
The concept of "green lighting" was put forward by the US Environmental Protection Agency in the early 1990s. It includes efficient energy saving, environmental protection, safety and comfort four indicators. High efficiency and energy saving as the name implies to ensure that enough lighting under the situation of consumption as little as possible, so as to reduce the power plant emissions, to achieve the purpose of environmental protection. The light is clear and soft and does not produce ultraviolet rays, preventing halo light and light pollution to achieve the purpose of safety and comfort.
From a macro point of view, the specific implementation of green electricity can be divided into two aspects, on the one hand, reduce energy consumption, on the other hand, research and development of new technologies, new products. LED is used to replace incandescent lamps in China, which can save about 41.67Mtce (2018), indicating significant energy saving effect. With the development of technology, LED lighting has reached a mature stage, and it is inevitable to explore new applications, such as the cross-industry combination of intelligent lighting, and the combination of lighting system and big data in different application scenarios.
From the micro point of view, the speed at which enterprises eliminate old capacity, develop new energy-saving products and the feasibility of long-term goals determine their future development. Science and technology progress, the market changes with each passing day, for the lighting industry, adhere to the rules, do not timely cut meat or even do not pay attention to the market expected changes, it is easy to be eliminated by The Times. Speed is efficiency, and sometimes it is the key to win, which requires enterprises to keep abreast of the world situation and the government's industrial planning, so as to make timely or even advance decisions and adjustments.
Countries from the policy to promote green lighting
Since the outbreak of the epidemic, countries have actively promoted green lighting programs, and most countries have formulated hard laws and regulations as well as target completion standards. Typical examples are the downgrading of energy labels and transparency of product information in Europe, China and some other countries. The downgrade of energy labels avoids the appearance of confused labels such as "AA", "AAA" and "5A" caused by technological development. The same QR code is more convenient for users and other related industries to fully understand product information, so that product information makes consumers more independent and selective. Secondly, a total ban on toxic, harmful and severely polluted products and materials, such as Japan's ban on import and export of mercury-containing products.
"Green lighting" influences the choice of materials and equipment in the future
General substrate materials are gallium nitride substrate, silicon substrate and sapphire substrate. In June 2011, China's first over 100 kg sapphire crystal was published in Jiangsu Yangzhong, which has become one of the mainstream substrate materials. Currently, sapphire substrate accounts for 20% of the production cost of epitaxial wafers. Sapphire's competitors are silicon substrates with better thermal conductivity and greater luminous area.
From the requirement of energy saving and high efficiency, the choice of raw materials in the future is more inclined to have higher luminous efficiency, adjustable lighting brightness and short replacement frequency of products. Therefore, silicon substrates and even silicon carbide substrates, after solving the cost problem in the future, will be the strong rival of sapphire substrates in the upstream industry of LED lighting.
At present, the world's mainstream chip equipment for MOCVD. The main manufacturers are AIXTRON in Germany, Veeco in the United States, And Micro and medium companies in China. Since 2009, governments in mainland China have subsidized THE PURCHASE of MOCVD equipment by LED chip manufacturers. Subsequently, the demand for MOCVD equipment by a large number of LED chip manufacturers has skyrocketed.
According to TrendForce's LEDinside, by the end of 2012, the number of MOCVD equipment in China has exceeded 900, and from 2015 to 2019, the scale of the global MOCVD equipment market showed a rapid growth trend, and the global LED chip production capacity gradually transferred to mainland China. At present, China has become the world's largest LED chip manufacturer.
The technical implications of "green lighting"
Policy corrects industry direction, technology promotes industry development. The rise of IOT and 5G network drives LED lighting to the digital technology field of cross-industry combination. The wide application of sensors and the cloud of big data make intelligent system become the development focus of downstream enterprises in recent years. In the era of data, the application of 5G network and sensors can analyze users' information, product use environment and user behavior. By setting up intelligent systems, lighting becomes more efficient and humanized and saves unnecessary energy consumption.
In addition, the government's vigorous promotion of smart city and smart engineering projects will enhance the market demand for smart lighting. In 2017, the global smart lighting market entered a high-speed development stage, with a market size approaching 4.6 billion US dollars. TrendForce estimates that the global smart lighting market size will be 8.19 billion US dollars in 2022.
Impact of "Green lighting" on application scenarios
With the acceleration of urbanization, the demand and construction scale of urban public lighting facilities are increasing year by year, while the energy consumption of urban public lighting is also increasing day by day. In the era of sustainable energy development, energy saving and emission reduction, efficient lighting, improving the life of street lights and other outdoor lighting, and reducing maintenance and management costs are also the main requirements of urban smart.
For example, in terms of traffic lighting, the intelligent lighting system can adjust the brightness of street lamps according to real-time traffic flow and direction of vehicles as long as there are vehicles on the road monitored by video, and can freely organize and control street lamps. After testing, the power saving rate can reach up to 80.5%.
With the continuous deterioration of the earth's living environment, and energy conservation and emission reduction in agriculture has gradually been paid attention to, the plant lighting simulating sunlight has shown explosive growth in recent years, and the industry has gradually increased attention. Although the main driver is the rapid growth of the medical and recreational marijuana market in North America, in the long run, LED lighting applications in vegetables, medicine and other fields are much more likely than marijuana.
According to TrendForce's latest research data, the global LED plant lighting market will grow by 10.4% to reach us $1.85 billion in 2022. The plant lighting market slowed down in the first half of last year, mainly due to shipping delays and freight price increases affected by the epidemic, followed by the shortage of power IC and other political factors.
"Green Lighting" promotes cross-industry cooperation, and enterprises actively layout smart lighting field
Enterprises actively promote green intelligent lighting, through cooperation to optimize the allocation of resources, expand the scale of business, in the fiercely competitive market environment, can quickly achieve the expected goal to obtain competitive advantages, at the same time with the resources and advantages of partners, rapid layout of emerging application scenarios and related industrial chains.
2021 lighting companies and Internet companies, wisdom lighting cloud platforms and other science and technology enterprise cooperation, respectively, in under the illumination of wisdom subdivision scenarios, such as Germany, foshan lighting in the city, education wisdom and wisdom in the field of office layout, as well as China focusing on the wisdom of science and technology street lamp on the body, and one of the developing direction of UL for lighting.